Games - Government Publications - Monographs
Articles - Magazine Articles - Newspaper
Wide Web - Unpublished
These are highly specialist
resources, usually dealing with minute, precise issues within the larger
Australian computer games censorship debate.
Formats are wide and varied. Presented here is just a very small,
but representative, sampling of the total resources held by the author
of this Web site.
These messages are evidence
of the way in which Australia's computer games
censorship scheme operated in relation to one particular controversial
title - Phantasmagoria 2.
Raay, M. (1997a, March 17). Re: Phantasmagoria 2 and the OFLC. Email
message to Anthony Larme.
Phantasmagoria 2 was
passed by the Office of Film and Literature
Classification in a censored form (rather than banned altogether) mainly
owing to the persistent efforts of Michael Van Raay, a representative of
the Australian distributor of this game. In this email message, he
tells Anthony Larme exactly what went on behind the scenes in order to
bring about this situation. Van Raay believes that many OFLC members
agree to the idea of games for adults, but cannot change the guidelines
they must work with alone.
Raay, M. (1997b, March 19). Re: A few more Phantas2 censorship questions.
Email message to Anthony Larme.
As a follow-up to his earlier
remarks, Van Raay elaborates on some of his behind the scenes experiences
and states that he and the large local company he represents continues
to push for a games ratings system that recognises that adults play computer
games. He clearly appreciates the dedication of some adult
games players in supporting this cause.
Once again, an insider view
of the actual operation of Australia's computer games censorship system
is uncovered in an analysed resource.
D. (2001, March 29). Letter to Anthony Larme. Sydney: Office of Film and
The Director of the OFLC,
Des Clark, writes to Anthony Larme in response to his enquiry as to the
date of the computer games guidelines review. Clark states that it
will occur soon and be part of a complex official process that will take
some time to complete. Anyone seen as being particularly interested
in this process will receive a paper copy of the discussion paper that
will form the basis of the review. See also Stewart,
This is pretty much the same
as in the Emails section above except that it relates to the controversy
surrounding Duke Nukem 3D.
I. (1996). Re: Duke Nukem 3D. Brisbane: Manaccom.
In a memo to retailers, the
Managing Director of the company who distributed
Duke Nukem 3D in
Australia tells of the censorship controversies this game aroused with
the OFLC and how he and his retailers felt exasperated by these needless
inconveniences. As a result, he created and circulated a petition
for adult games shoppers to sign to send to the Government to prove the
demand for adult games.
Press Release -
Overseas developments and
research into computer game demographics can be seen quite prominently
in this resource.
Digital Software Association [IDSA]. (1996). New study documents broad
appeal of interactive entertainment software and hardware. Washington
D.C.: Interactive Digital Software Association.
US-based IDSA, the industry
body for computer and video games publishers, found that seventy-two percent
of computer games players are over the age of eighteen and that forty percent
of these are women. This flies in the face of common belief that
games are just for kids, especially teenaged boys. Such findings
were based on a sampling of 1,700 US households that owned at least one
Committee inquiry submissions outline the accusations
made against computer games very well. They also provide additional
information as to the local stakeholders in
J. (1996). Catholic Women's League, Archdiocese of Canberra and Coulburn
[sic]. Submission to the Committee of Ministers on the Portrayal of Violence.
Canberra: Catholic Women's League.
The Catholic Women's League
takes the view that children are extremely impressionable when they watch
or play violent entertainment material and thus need to be stringently
protected against its inevitable negative effects. Such violent entertainment
material has increased markedly with the rise of computer games and the
Internet. Strict Government regulation is required for the overall
good of the community.
B. (1996). Young Media Australia. Submission to the Committee of Ministers
on the Portrayal of Violence. Adelaide: Young Media Australia.
Although YMA holds no clear
religious views, it is the most powerful and enthusiastic group in the
Australian community with the aim of protecting children through the significantly
increased censorship of visual entertainment material, computer games included.
They are particularly opposed to the introduction of an R rating for computer
games on the grounds that they see adults as been technologically illiterate
and thus unable to protect their children from the perceived strong negative
affects of these games. Phantasmagoria
is singled out as a computer game whose ban was well deserved, not just
for the sexual scenes, but for the scenes of extreme horror as well.
R. (1996). Submission to the Committee of Ministers on the Portrayal of
Violence. Adelaide: Festival of Light.
This submission has little
to say regarding computer games in particular, but does mention them in
speaking out against violence and sexual content in visual entertainment
as a whole. It proposes a far stricter censorship system than currently
applies to films and games on the grounds of protecting society, particularly
the most vulnerable and impressionable members, namely children.